Pacific Cancer Programs

Tobacco Prevention and Control

Tobacco control and prevention are a core component in lung, throat, and oral cancer prevention. This section provides information on general tobacco facts, general smoking and cancer resources, resources with a Pacific focus, online training and resources, evidence based programs, and additional resources.

1. General Tobacco Facts

  • Tobacco is one of the strongest cancer-causing agents. Tobacco use is associated with a number of different cancers, including lung cancer, as well as with chronic lung diseases and cardiovascular diseases.
  • Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, causing an estimated 438,000 deaths - or about 1 out of every 5 - each year.
  • In the United States, approximately 38,000 deaths each year are caused by exposure to secondhand smoke.
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States, with 90 percent of lung cancer deaths among men and approximately 80 percent of lung cancer deaths among women attributed to smoking.
  • Smoking also increases the risk of many other types of cancer, including cancers of the throat, mouth, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and cervix.
  • People who smoke are up to six times more likely to suffer a heart attack than nonsmokers, and the risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked. Smoking also causes most cases of chronic obstructive lung disease, which includes bronchitis and emphysema.
  • In 2007, approximately 19.8 percent of U.S. adults were cigarette smokers.
  • Twenty-three percent of high school students and 8 percent of middle school students in this country are current cigarette smokers.

2. General Smoking and Cancer Resources

The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is the first treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization. The WHO FCTC is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of all people to the highest standard of health. The WHO FCTC was developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic. The spread of the tobacco epidemic is facilitated through a variety of complex factors with cross-border effects, including trade liberalization and direct foreign investment.

Tobacco Cessation - You Can Quit Smoking Now! The Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services offers a very concise overview list with key materials in one place.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, causing many diseases and affecting the health of smokers in general. Quitting smoking has immediate as well as long-term benefits for you and your loved ones. Learn more about the harmful effects of smoking, smokeless tobacco, and secondhand smoke from the resources below and find out about resources that address prevention.

National Cancer Institute: Accurate, up-to-date, comprehensive cancer information from the US government's principal agency for cancer research.

American Cancer Society (ACS): Tobacco and Cancer: Smoking damages nearly every organ in the human body, is linked to at least 15 different cancers, and accounts for some 30% of all cancer deaths.

American Lung Association: Facts and information about lung health, smoking cessation, and lung cancer.

3. Resources with a Pacific Focus

Why You Should Quit Smoking: ‘Imi Hale the Native Hawaiian Cancer Network’s has a smoking cessation brochure for Native Hawaiians.

The Coalition for a Tobacco Free Hawai‘i: This site has useful tools and also shows the types of activities and accomplishments a well-funded coalition can achieve.

4. Online Training and Resources

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health: With a funding commitment of $125 million, the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use represents the largest-ever effort to fight tobacco in the low- and middle-income countries that are now home to a majority of the world's smokers. This site offers free instructional training for policy makers, researchers, educators and the general public.

The Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium (TTAC) is dedicated to assisting organizations in building and developing highly effective tobacco control programs. Whether your organization is national, state or community-based, TTAC can assist you. TTAC provides individualized technical assistance, customized trainings, and a variety of tools and products, to help clients succeed in their tobacco control efforts.

Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids has policy-related reports and resources.

5. Evidence Based Programs

Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Sponsored by the Public Health Service, includes new, effective clinical treatments for tobacco dependence that have become available since the 2000 Guideline was published. This update will make an important contribution to the quality of care in the United States and to the health of the American people. Information, including clinical treatment guidelines and “how to quit” guides for different population groups as well as evidence based programs can be found at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) website.

Guide to Community Preventive Services: The CDC’s Guide to Community Preventive Services does systematic reviews of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce or prevent tobacco use. It focuses on research-tested, population-based interventions to prevent and reduce tobacco use. Many resources are available as pdf files.

Tobacco Control: 5 Steps to Effective Cancer Control Planning: Cancer Control P.L.A.N.E.T. - Links to comprehensive cancer control resources for public health professionals.

6. Additional Resources

The Tobacco 101 Version 2 Training Kit: The kit provides the curriculum and tools necessary for someone to train newcomers to the tobacco control profession. Tobacco 101 was developed for the Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium (TTAC) by the Organizational Development and Training Group at the University of Massachusetts Donahue Institute in 2004.

Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007: An evidence-based guide to help states plan and establish effective tobacco control programs to prevent and reduce tobacco use.

  • CDC 2007, 122 pages (pdf 1.2MB)
  • Executive Summary, 3 pages (pdf 150KB)

Smoking & Tobacco Use Fact Sheets: Over 20 fact sheets from the CDC in pdf format addressing a multitude of issues addressing tobacco use.

HEALTHY Tobacco and Nicotine Cessation information

The HEALTHY program team members are there to help parents and guardians of hospitalized children quit nicotine and tobacco products.

  • View their website by clicking >HERE<
  • 7. Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes / E-cigs)

    World Health Organization - 3 June 2014

    GENEVA - Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), of which electronic cigarettes are the most common prototype, are devices that do not burn or use tobacco leaves but instead vaporise a solution the user then inhales. The main constituents of the solution, in addition to nicotine when nicotine is present, are propylene glycol, with or without glycerol and flavouring agents. ENDS solutions and emissions contain other chemicals, some of them considered to be toxicants.

    Although some e-cigarettes look like tobacco products (e.g. cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, pipes, hookahs, or shishas), they may be produced in the form of everyday items such as pens, USB memory sticks or larger cylindrical or rectangular devices.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently reviewing the existing evidence around ENDS and preparing a paper for submission to the meeting of the Parties of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which occurs later this year. WHO is also working with national regulatory bodies to look at regularity options as well as toxicology experts to understand more about the impact ENDS may have on health.

  • The full statement is viewable by clicking >HERE< or visiting WHO's website.
  • An extensive Q&A page is available on WHO's official website, that can be accessed by clicking >HERE< or visiting WHO's website on

    ChangeLab Solutions developed this policy guide to provide information about the public health concerns related to electronic smoking devices, the steps that have been taken to regulate electronic smoking devices, and what additional measures communities can take to limit access to and the availability of electronic smoking devices.

    For more information please access ChangeLab's website, by clicking >HERE<

  • Regulating Toxic Vapor: A Policy Guide to Electronic Smoking Devices (6/14) article can be directly opened (pdf format), by clicking >HERE<
  • Association Between Initial Use of e-Cigarettes and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    JAMA Pediatrics Article e-Cigarette use was associated with greater risk for subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and past 30-day cigarette smoking. Strong e-cigarette regulation could potentially curb use among youth and possibly limit the future population-level burden of cigarette smoking.

  • For more information please download the article, by clicking >HERE<
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Funding Sources: PRCCR: #: 5U58DP000835 | Pacific CEED: #: 5U58DP000976 | RCCC: #: U55/CCU923887 

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